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Related to Great Karoo: Little Karoo. All rights reserved. The highveld, north of the Central Karoo, is sometimes called the Northern Karoo. Geological Science a period or rock system in Southern Africa equivalent to the period or system extending from the Upper Carboniferous to the Lower Jurassic: divided into Lower and Upper Karoo. Mentioned in? Central Karoo Karroo.
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Hammerhead Karoo GPS Bike Computer Detailed u0026 DemoedContent:
- Access Denied
- The Nine Deserts In Africa
- Karoo Landscape Natural Free Photo
- Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa
- Our Blog: Plants and other Stories
- Stratigraphic Architecture of the Karoo River Channels at the End-Capitanian
- Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape
- Karoo National Park
- Grade 11 Geomorphology Canyons, Karoo Landscapes and Scarp Retreat.
This book presents a beautifully illustrated overview of the most prominent landscapes of South Africa and the distinctive landforms associated with them. It describes the processes, origins and the environmental significance of those landscapes, including their relationships to human activity of the past and present. The sites described in this book include, amongst others, the Blyde River Canyon, Augrabies Falls, Kruger National Park, Kalahari desert landscapes, the Great Escarpment, Sterkfontein caves and karst system, Table Mountain, Cape winelands, coastal dunes, rocky coasts, Boer War battlefield sites, and Vredefort impact structure.
This book will be relevant to those interested in the geology, physical geography and history of South Africa, climate change and landscape tourism. Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents Frontmatter Chapter 1.
This chapter introduces the broader context for the diverse South African landscapes and landforms discussed in this book. Both earlier and more recent theories of landscape evolution are then highlighted, in particular given that some of these were locally founded but applied globally.
It is demonstrated that much of the South African macroscale geomorphology and site-specific landform development is controlled not only by geology, but also by past epeirogenic uplift, influencing river divides and drainage networks, and also a regionally diverse climate. Finally, the association between people and landscapes is emphasized as an important theme covered throughout this book. South Africa boasts some of the most impressive sandstone landscapes and landforms in the world, and although these are widely distributed across South Africa, some of the most spectacular examples are associated with the Molteno, Elliot and Clarens Formations in the central region of South Africa.
The prominence of sandstone in this region is primarily owing to palaeo-basin infilling during the late Carboniferous and a climate dominated by seasonal precipitation patterns, both now and in the past.
Consequently, a range of weathering and erosion processes have operated at wide-ranging spatial scales upon the sandstone outcrops. The chapter describes prominent sandstone landscapes plateaus, mesa-butte topography, scarplands, slopes and landforms e. For instance, almost all known San rock art sites are associated with sandstone, yet rapid weathering of such rock is jeopardizing the longevity of this cultural legacy.
This chapter describes how epeirogenic uplift of the escarpment, followed by headward erosion by rivers into different geological formations, has sculpted different landforms and largely controlled the development of features such as waterfalls, scarp faces, gorges and canyons. Pothole formation in harder rocks has been a major factor in the development of gorges.
The weathering characteristics of dolomite formations and nature and origin of dolomitic caves, their dripstone deposits and calcareous tufa deposits along the escarpment region are also described. The spectacular natural features of the region have made it a popular tourist destination.
The Vredefort impact event 2, Ma ago into the ancient rocks of the Kaapvaal craton is estimated to have left a crater that was originally at least km wide and over 1 km deep. The crater and its infill of broken and melted rocks have long since been stripped away by erosion, rendering the crater margins largely invisible today.
However, a central region of rock that was domed upward during the impact event and that bears numerous scars of the catastrophe is still visible.The crescentic Vredefort Mountainland forms a portion of this geological feature, which is referred to as the Vredefort Dome.
The landscape of the Dome owes much of its current dramatic topographic relief to the Ma Dwyka glaciation, evidence of which is now being exhumed by the modern Vaal River. Large potholes, sand-blasted rock pavements and the remnants of ancient dune fields testify to more recent shifts in climate in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The geomorphological evolution of the Pilanesberg Complex, an alkaline igneous body emplaced around 1, million years ago and subsequently exhumed by erosion, reflects the interplay of tectonic and climatic factors over very long time periods that have given rise to regional-scale patterns of geomorphological processes and resultant landforms.
The absence of significant placer deposits of gold, platinum and chromium is explained by this proposed model. The geologic history of the Great Escarpment, which includes within it the Drakensberg escarpment, closely follows cycles of tectonic evolution and land surface denudation from the Jurassic to Miocene that affected the entire southern African region.
Along the Drakensberg escarpment, which includes some of the highest mountain summits in southern Africa, the presence of flat-lying Jurassic basalts has strongly influenced processes and patterns of subsequent weathering, erosion and mass movement, in particular during cooler climate periods of the Quaternary. Distinctive weathering, periglacial and glacial, mass movement and fluvial phenomena have resulted from this interplay between geology, climate and geomorphological processes over the Quaternary and Holocene.
The Drakensberg escarpment region also shows a close interconnection between landscape geomorphology, biodiversity and patterns of human cultural occupation during the Holocene. For these reasons, conservation of geomorphological, ecological and cultural sites in the Drakensberg escarpment, and their sustainable management under conditions of climate change, is an important contemporary issue.
Typical erosional landforms found along this coast include cliffs, shore platforms and relict fossil clifflines, sea arches and stacks, and tafoni weathering forms.
Depositional features include beachrock, aeolianite, coastal sand dunes, sandy beaches and barriers across tidal inlets. These erosional and depositional landforms are largely a product of climate and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and Holocene.
The aesthetically pleasing landscapes of the Wild Coast are a significant tourist attraction. The fluvial landscape of the arid Augrabies Falls region is characterised by a complex of channels, waterfalls and gorges eroded in granitoid bedrock.
Anabranches of the Orange River divide and rejoin around stable, predominantlybedrock islands, and many terminate at or near the permanently flowing 50—60 m high Main Falls, with the largest summer floods also activating other normally dry waterfalls.
A developmental model is outlined, which posits that waterfall retreat and concomitant gorge formation in the initially low-relief valley floor has initiated a wave of erosion that represents a renewed phase oflandscape denudation.
The faster retreat of the Main Falls is driving changes to upstream flow patterns. Over a long time scale, incision along anabranches that are tributary to the gorge will combine with gorge sidewall retreat, thereby leading to valley floor dissection. The Richtersveld, in northwest South Africa, is located at the transition from the coastal plain to the elevated interior plateau and adjacent to the Orange River.
Despite this positioning, the primary landscape features of the Richtersveld reflect the much more humid conditions of the Cretaceous period million years ago. Subsequent aridification of the southern African west coast during the Cenozoic resulted in lower landscape denudation rates that left the topography of the Richtersveld largely unaffected, except for periodic changes in climate when increased run-off incised the lower Orange River through the Great Escarpment and into the continental interior.
Sea-level fluctuations during the Cenozoic also contributed to river incision, as well as the development of river terraces and marine benches that host economically important diamond placers. Three landscape terrains can be defined along a west—east profile, inland from the coast. The western Richtersveld forms the coastal plain that was cut to near sea level across all lithologies, irrespective of composition and hardness, and is covered by alluvial debris derived from the escarpment and aeolian sands from the coast.
The central and eastern terrains form a linear corridor of high topographic relief and dissection that characterises the Great Escarpment.The great antiquity and long-term preservation of the Richtersveld landscape reflects its long geologic and climatic history and is today protected as a wilderness region. After deposition, the Ordovician to Carboniferous sandstones and shales of the Cape Supergroup were subjected to faulting, folding and subsequent weathering which has produced a rugged mountainous terrain characterised by a sequence of elevated ridges and peaks up to 2, m a.
The geomorphology of the region is strongly controlled by these bedrock structures, which illustrates the close relationship between geologic and geomorphic patterns of landscape evolution over long timescales.
The interlinked geology, geomorphology and ecology are protected as part of the Cederberg Wilderness Area, which is a significant geotourism and geoheritage region, rich in archaeological remains.
The geology in the vicinity of the city of Cape Town is exceptional for its spectacular scenery, distinctive geomorphology, the diversity of rock types and contacts on display, and its relation to the highly diverse natural fynbos vegetation. The iconic Table Mountain rises over 1, m above the city centre and forms the focus of the recently established Table Mountain National Park.
The most obvious geomorphological features are the dramatic cliff faces and steep slopes that expose the three main rock types of the area: metamorphic rocks of the Malmesbury Group, igneous rocks of the Cape Granite Suite including intrusions of dolerite dykes and sedimentary rocks of the Table Mountain Group. Tectonism along with differences in weathering processes of different rock types has combined to give the distinctive flat-top of Table Mountain, the rounded, smooth slopes of the Tygerberg, Signal Hill and Paarl Rock, and the expansive Cape Flats in between.
The major wine-producing region of South Africa is located in the south-western part of the country and widely known as the Cape Winelands. Vineyards are located on soils developed under all three of these major geological substrates where slope conditions allow, as well as on the sand and gravel plains of the rivers that drain the region.
The most striking geomorphological feature is the contrast between relatively gently rolling plateau country of the Swartland underlain by Malmesbury shales and Cape Granite, and the rugged topography of the Table Mountain Group sandstone-dominated Cape Fold Belt mountains to the east. Combinations of climate, geology, slope and soil factors, coupled with the efforts of the winemakers, give rise to contrasting terroir s in the region which favours the production of different styles, character and quality of wine produced.
The winelands represent a suite of cultural landscapes that justify significant conservation efforts both for their historical and natural resource value. The Kruger National Park is an outstanding wildlife site and ecological resource where ecosystems and their functions are strongly influenced by underlying geology, geomorphology, soils, climate and water resources.
This chapter outlines the general geology and geomorphology of the Kruger area. Landscape evolution and landform development during the Cenozoic has also been strongly controlled by the varied geological formations present in Kruger. The interrelationships between these factors and their role in ecosystem development and cultural landscape features are examined.
Maputaland represents the southern limit of the east African coastal plain, flanked by the volcanic Lebombo mountain cuesta and the high-energy Indian Ocean. The terrain morphology of the region bears testimony to deep erosional incision and dramatic sea-level fluctuations since the early Cretaceous.
The topography of the coastal plain is closely linked to the sequence of aeolian sand deposits that have been differentially weathered and eroded. The late Neogene shoreline has been exploited by the Phongola River.
Under the Tshongwe—Sihangwane sand megaridge and the wetland systems towards the east, the truncated dune landscape of the Kosi Bay Formation perches groundwater, providing groundwater seepage and seasonal run-off to the coastal lakes. The extended parabolic dune systems of the KwaMbonambi Formation define the surface relief and confine interdune wetlands.
The coastal lakes have evolved in response to Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations that have inundated river valleys up to 25 km inland and caused foredunes to be submerged several kilometres offshore on the shelf. Accretion of the high coastal barrier dune cordon during the Holocene isolated some coastal lakes and forced morphological changes in others. Management of this area with international conservation status must draw from the dramatic influences that geomorphic processes have had on this region.
The combination of vegetated orange—red dunes, seasonal pans and dry valleys in the Kalahari creates a landscape with outstanding scientific and aesthetic value. This chapter describes the geomorphological features of the Kalahari Desert within South Africa and adjacent areas of Botswana and Namibia, with a special emphasis on aspects that make the landscape unique.
The Kalahari is an arid to semi-arid region underlain by Cretaceous to recent Kalahari Group sediments, including a surface blanket of unconsolidated Kalahari sands. The landscape is dominated by three sets of landforms: a dry valley systems, including the Auob, Nossob, Kuruman and Molopo rivers; b partially vegetated linear dunes, which stretch in a broad zone from Upington on the Orange River into Botswana and Namibia; and c seasonally flooded pans.
The importance of the long-term geological history of the Kalahari for understanding the present landscape is also discussed. The descriptor Western Free State Panfield covers the greatest concentration of pans in southern Africa.
Many Free State pans boast fringing lunette dunes on their southern and south-eastern margins. Lunettes derive their name from their sickle-moon shape, yet the environmental requirements which promote and sustain the formation of pan-lunette sequences are still not fully understood.
In the western Free State, pans form almost exclusively on the shale substrate of the Ecca Group, suggesting a significant measure of geological control. An apparent pattern of pan orientation exists in agreement with palaeodrainage lines. This supports the notion of bedrock influence on drainage, with drainage in turn playing a direct role in pan formation. Lithological rock type control on the formation of pans in the western Free State is, clearly, important. This chapter describes the morphology of pans and lunettes the two features should, arguably, not be separated and reviews the origins of their formation.
Finally, pans as a resource are examined, and their significance as a key element of the Free State landscape and a proxy for environmental change is assessed. The fossil-bearing cave deposits represent a more recent instalment of a history spanning 2. The location and morphology of the caves is a result of lithological variation within the two host dolomite formations, multiple and complex phases of karstification and infilling of the resultant solution cavities over the two billion years since the dolomite deposition, and consistently active local tensional joint and fault systems.
Where vadose collapse has opened the caves to the landscape, a broad range of geomorphological processes has created dynamic sedimentary environments with complex stratigraphic histories.
The Anglo-Boer War of — was a significant conflict in the recent history of South Africa, but the military geography of this conflict has not been subject to systematic analysis. This chapter explores the relationship between the strategies of military engagement during this conflict and the nature of the physical landscape in which these engagements took place. An overview of the broad types of geomorphological and geological settings for some 43 major engagements of the conflict is followed by a detailed case study of the landscape contexts of engagements around Colenso former province of Natal.
The relatively limited degree of post-conflict land use and geomorphological change in these parts of South Africa also renders many of these battlefield sites readily appreciated in the landscape and is reflected in an increasing interest in battlefield heritage tourism.
To date, however, there has been little work to develop this potential. This chapter describes examples of sites where geoheritage and geotourism activities have been developed in South Africa, and how other scenic South African landscapes can enhance their geoheritage and geotourism potential. Title Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa.
The Nine Deserts In Africa
South Africa occupies the most southern tip of Africa with its long coastline stretching more than 3 km from the desert border with Namibia on the Atlantic coast southwards around the tip of Africa and then north to the border of subtropical Mozambique on the Indian Ocean. The country has more than conservation parks. It is home to almost mammal species, about bird species and 8 plant species. The annual sardine run is the biggest migration on the planet.
Planting spekboom at Samara Private Game Reserve, Great Karoo, Spekboom is a favoured plant for landscape restoration projects.
Karoo Landscape Natural Free Photo
The first definition of Karoo in the dictionary is any of several high arid plateaus in South Africa, esp the Central Karoo and the Little Karoo. The highveld, north of the Central Karoo, is sometimes called the Northern Karoo.Other definition of Karoo is a period or rock system in Southern Africa equivalent to the period or system extending from the Upper Carboniferous to the Lower Jurassic: divided into Lower and Upper Karoo. Karoo is also of, denoting, or formed in the Karoo period. Educalingo cookies are used to personalize ads and get web traffic statistics. We also share information about the use of the site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners. View details Got it. Download the app educalingo. Meaning of "Karoo" in the English dictionary. Synonyms and antonyms of Karoo in the English dictionary of synonyms.
Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa
No exact definition of what constitutes the Karoo is available, so its extent is also not precisely defined. The Karoo is partly defined by its topography, geology and climate, and above all, its low rainfall, arid air, cloudless skies, and extremes of heat and cold. The xerophytic vegetation consists of aloes , mesembryanthemums , crassulas , euphorbias , stapelias , and desert ephemerals , spaced 50 cm or more apart,   and becoming very sparse going northwards into Bushmanland and, from there, into the Kalahari Desert. The driest region of the Karoo, however, is its southwestern corner, between the Great Escarpment and the Cederberg-Skurweberg mountain ranges , called the Tankwa Karoo , which receives only 75 mm of rain annually. The typical Karoo vegetation used to support large game, sometimes in vast herds.
The Karoo is a semi-desert natural region of South Africa.
Our Blog: Plants and other Stories
Stratigraphic Architecture of the Karoo River Channels at the End-Capitanian
Afrikaans karo , from Khoikhoi karo, karro hard, dry. See more words from the same year. Accessed 22 Dec. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Log in Sign Up. Save Word. Definition of karoo Entry 1 of 2.
asking learners for their definitions of desertification. associated with the development of canyon landscapes and Karoo landscapes?
Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape
No exact definition of what constitutes the Karoo is available, so its extent is also not precisely defined. The Karoo is partly defined by its topography, geology and climate, and above all, its low rainfall, arid air, cloudless skies, and extremes of heat and cold. The xerophytic vegetation consists of aloes , mesembryanthemums , crassulas , euphorbias , stapelias , and desert ephemerals , spaced 50 cm or more apart,   and becoming very sparse going northwards into Bushmanland and, from there, into the Kalahari Desert.
Karoo National Park
The , ha Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape of dramatic mountainous desert in north-western South Africa constitutes a cultural landscape communally owned and managed. This site sustains the semi-nomadic pastoral livelihood of the Nama people, reflecting seasonal patterns that may have persisted for as much as two millennia in southern Africa. It is the only area where the Nama still construct portable rush-mat houses haru om and includes seasonal migrations and grazing grounds, together with stock posts. The pastoralists collect medicinal and other plants and have a strong oral tradition associated with different places and attributes of the landscape. El sitio comprende las zonas de pasto y los lugares de acampada temporalmente utilizados durante las migraciones estacionales.
Grade 11 Geomorphology Canyons, Karoo Landscapes and Scarp Retreat.
The main Karoo Basin of southern Africa contains the continental record of the end-Triassic, end-Permian, and end-Capitanian mass extinction events. Of these, the environmental drivers of the end-Capitanian are least known. Our multi-proxy sedimentological work not only defines the depositional setting of the succession as a megafan system that drained the foothills of the Cape Fold Belt, but also attempts to differentiate the tectonic and climatic controls on the fluvial architecture of this paleontologically important Permian succession.Our results reveal limited changes in sediment sources, paleocurrents, sandstone body geometries, and possibly a constant hot, semi-arid paleoclimate during the deposition of the studied interval; however, the stratigraphic trends show upward increase in 1 laterally accreted, sandy architectural elements and 2 architectural elements that build a portion of the floodplain deposits. We consider this to reflect a long-term retrogradational stacking pattern of facies composition that can be linked to changes on the medial parts of southward draining megafans, where channel sinuosity increased, and depositional energy decreased at the end-Capitanian. The shift in the fluvial architecture was likely triggered by basin-wide allogenic controls rather than local autogenic processes because this trend is observed in the coeval stratigraphic intervals from geographically disparate areas in the southwestern and southern main Karoo Basin.
If you like getting off the beaten track, head to Graaff-Reinet or the surrounding Great Karoo, with its dramatic landscape, frontier history and huge skies. The Great Karoo appeals to those who enjoy getting off the beaten track. It takes up a vast part of the interior of South Africa. It offers dramatic landscapes, huge skies and superb star gazing.